SAINS45: Indonesian Science Agenda towards a Century of Independence is a living document that is made to inspire the scientific community and wider public. It is a short article of popular science that is written in plain language for lay people. The starting point of this agenda is the awareness that society cannot survive long without science and conversely science needs a supportive society to thrive and develop. This document was conceived and drafted by young Indonesian scientists. They formulated eight clusters of fundamental issues and 45 fundamental scientific questions. The document, with the fundamental scientific questions it contains, must be viewed as a living document that gazes far into the future, and open to improvements so it can become a constant source of inspiration for the nation to enhance its science and knowledge. The 8 clusters of fundamental issues: (I) Identity, Diversity, and Culture; (II) The Archipelago, Marine, and Bio-Resources; (III) Life, Health, and Nutrition; (IV) Water, Food, and Energy; (V) Earth, Climate, and the Universe; (VI) Natural Disasters and Community Resilience; (VII) Materials and Computational Science; and (VIII) Economy, Society, and Governance.